From Marilyn Yalom,
Birth of the Chess Queen: A History:
When the great chess reform took place at the end of the fifteenth century, Catholic countries continued to use the vulgar [vernacular] equivalents of domina--dama in Spain, donna in Italy and dame in France, that evoked "Our Lady." But in Germany and England, transformed by the Protestant Reformation, refused derivatives of domina that might suggest any link to the suspect cult of the Virgin Mary. Instead they used the secular terms Konigin and "queen."From a Hebrew text attributed to the Spaniard Bonsenior ibn Yehia
She sits at the top of the high places above the city. She is restless and determined. She girds her loins with strength. Her feet stay not in her house. She moves in every direction and into every corner. Her evolutions are wonderful, her spirit untiring. How comely are her footsteps as she moves diagonally, one step after another, from square to square!From Gautier de Coinci (c. 1177-1236)
And the King, dressed in black robes, stands on the fourth square, which is white. His queen stands on the square next to him, which is black. He draws near to the pitch darkness, his eye is upon her, for he has taken an Ethiopian woman [as his consort]. There is no difference between them as they come towards you. They set out towards you along the same path, at the same pace, and by the same route. When the one dies, so does the other.
Miracles of the Virgin Mary:
Whoever serves her [Mary] well
Has such an advantage in all games
That the devil...
Cannot beguile him
God made such a Virgin Queen
That the devil was mated and undone.
God planned a brilliant move long in advance
Which the devil in no way foresaw.
He covered His side with His Queen.
The devil, who works much evil,
When God had advanced His Queen
Lost his wits and his power.
This Queen moves in such a way
That she checks the adversary in all directions
The traitor who knows many moves
Soon takes fright when she moves:
He cannot fathom even one of hers.
Then she gives him a perfect check
So ingenious and well done
That he immediately loses the game completely--
O! What a queen! O! What a chess queen.
[In reference to the former move of the chess queen, which was one square, rather than her current unlimited powers:]
Other queens move but one square,
But this one moves so fast...
That before the devil has taken one of hers
She has him so bound and bewildered
That he doesn't know which way to move.
This Queen mates the devil head on,
This Queen mates him in the angle
This Queen quiets his jangle
This Queen deprives him of his prey,
This Queen torments him every day.
This Queen goads him everywhere,
This Queen [drives him] square to square.
We cannot move without you,
[We are] your pawns:
Teach us to play, God's Chess Queen [lit., Fierce Dieu]
And take such care of us
That to the great King
We may all arrive.